Cultures of fear can be spread, either deliberately or otherwise, by a wide range of agents including the media, government, science, the arts, industry and politics. The ease of which fear can be generated means that today’s society remains inordinately fearful of improbable harms and dangers. A good deal of societal fear stems from mistrust of ‘the Other’: a term used to describe individuals or groups that are, quite simply, ‘not like us’. In this project, we explicitly explore this notion of ‘Othering’ as it occurs in situations where ‘the Other’ are seen as “anomalous,” “peculiar,” or “deviant” and hence negatively perceived, stigmatised, excluded, marginalised and discriminated against. There are significant unanswered questions regarding how acts of Othering translates into effects on real populations and in real contexts, and what role online digital media can have in propagating cultures of fear and mistrust. With online social media, no longer is fear delivered exclusively in a top down manner, (e.g. from government and the mainstream media). Instead it is now also delivered from the grassroots level and therefore insidiously present in the user-generated social data streams that we absorb from our encounters with the web, and, in particular, with platforms such as Twitter and Facebook.
The focus of this project are the cultures of fear that are propagated through online Othering and how this leads to subsequent mistrust of groups or communities. Our research will generate an understanding of how the deliberate design of online media services and platforms can influence and oppose cultures of fear and result in cultures of empathy that can actively, and strategically, reduce or eliminate mistrust and negative consequences of Othering. We will actively collaborate with stakeholders to co-design new digital services that facilitate wide-scale empathy with specifically chosen often-Othered groups. This will include active collaboration with broadcast media organisations to develop a range of interactive, digital online experiences delivered alongside traditional media. We will also undertake online ethnographies and data collection, where prior or existing activities have portrayed a group in ways that actively provoke Othering as evidenced through discourse on social and traditional media; in this instance we will design and deliver a set of digital services to counter this in a deliberate manner.
Date: August 2014 – August 2017
Funder: ESRC (EMoTiCoN) £110,000 (Newcastle).
Researchers: John Vines.
Collaborators: Shaun Lawson (Lincoln – PI), Julie Barnett (Bath), Karen Salt (Aberdeen), and Vanessa Pupavac (Nottingham).